Tapioca flour baking recipes

 

A look through some of the photos of our most recent trip to Brazil reminded me just how popular and prevalent cassava and tapioca flour products and dishes are across the country. Tapioca flour cheese puffs, farofa (toasted cassava) and tapioca pancakes – both sweet and savoury – were never far when hunger hit.

Farofa toasted cassava
Farofa (toasted cassava) in the island paradise of Boipeba
Pao de queijo tapioca cheese puffs
Pao de queijo (tapioca cheese puffs)

Having previously experimented with tapioca flour to make the uniquely textured tapioca cheese puffs at home, I collaborated with the team at Buy Whole Foods Online to specifically look at the versatility of tapioca flour in baking. The results are tremendous; an incredibly useful flour, particularly in gluten-free baking, tapioca flour packs a punch in the baker’s kitchen.

How to use tapioca flour for baking

Tapioca (also manioc or cassava) is made by heating the root of the cassava plant. It is then dried into granules (tapioca), flakes or ground into flour. Although not the most nutritious of flours, tapioca flour is useful as a base for breads, cakes and biscuits where a light texture is desired, and it has many other fantastic attributes useful in both sweet and savoury baking.

Over here on DrAxe.com you can find an excellent article on tapioca flour and its properties for baking, and I wanted to summarise the topline facts below:

  1. Tapioca tastes mild and slightly sweet. It is however virtually undetectable in recipes, which is why it’s used in both sweet and savoury dishes.
  2. Tapioca is made up of almost all carbohydrates and is very low in all types of fats, sugar, fiber, protein, sodium, and essential vitamins or minerals.
  3. It’s totally gluten-freelow in calories and free from sugar.
  4. It has positive effects on the texture and “mouth-feel” of recipes — for example, by making baked goods more spongy, springy, promoting browning and helping crusts to crisp up.
  5. Tapioca absorbs and retains a higher water content, which means it does a great job of binding, thickening and moistening recipes.

Tapioca flour yeast bread recipe

This is the best and most natural gluten-free bread I have been able to make at home, a recipe by Andrew Whitley from his book Bread Matters. I like it as it doesn’t contain heavily processed ingredients such as xanthum gum. Instead, the ingredient list contains nutritionally valuable flours from natural sources and yeast is used as raising agent rather than baking powder/bicarb of soda. Bread Matters also has excellent recipes for gluten-free pastry, gluten-free cake and gluten-free pizza base, all of which contain tapioca flour.

Tapioca flour bread
Tapioca flour bread

The flours used in this gluten-free bread recipe:

  • Tapioca: As mentioned above, tapioca itself is low in nutrients but the addition of other flours balances this out. As used moderately, it imparts a pleasant, chewy texture to this bread and adds a certain binding quality to help keep the dough together when baked.
  • Maizemeal: Whole maize seed ground into flour. A useful base flour with considerable binding properties.
  • Chestnut flour: Milled from dried and roasted sweet chestnuts. A nutritionally useful source of flavour and texture in gluten-free baking.
  • Chickpea flour: Milled from chickpeas. Very nutritious and flavoursome. High protein content gives it a firming and binding effect. Th addition of chickpea flour helps to stop the dough from falling to bits.
Tapioca flour bread gluten free
Tapioca flour bread gluten free
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Yeasted gluten-free tapioca bread

A simple recipe for gluten-free bread using tapioca flour and a variety of other gluten-free flours to produce a great-tasting loaf. The combination of ingredients aims to form a gluten-free loaf of reasonable nutritional value with a texture that is similar to soda bread. 
Prep Time 10 minutes
Cook Time 30 minutes
Proofing time 1 hour
Total Time 40 minutes
Servings 8 people

Ingredients

Gluten-free maize & tapioca bread ingredients

Instructions

How to make gluten-free maize & tapioca bread

  • Combine all the dry ingredients (maize, tapioca, chestnut, chickpea flours, dried yeast and salt) in a bowl and mix with a whisk.
  • Add the water and cider vinegar and whisk until you have a dough with the consistency of smooth, wet cement.
  • Grease a small bread tin (I used a 20 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm tin).
  • Move the dough into the tin. Use a silicone spatula to make this an easy, clean and effective operation. Don't worry about smoothing it out as it will even itself out during the prove.
  • Cover the tin with a polythene bag to prevent the dough from drying out.
  • Prove for about an hour in a warm place, aiming for about a 50% increase in volume. Th dough will not hold as much gas as one made with gluten-containing flour.
  • Preheat the oven to 210°C.
  • Evenly sprinkle linseed on top of the dough surface.
  • Bake for 30 minutes until the loaf begins to shrink away from the sides of the tin. Cool on a wire rack.
    Best eaten fresh. Can be frozen in slices and defrosted as needed.
Tapioca flour based bread
Tapioca flour based bread

Gluten-free cheesy tapioca pancake recipe

I don’t think it’s really possible to make the real deal Brazilian tapioca pancakes in my home in Edinburgh, Scotland. They just wouldn’t taste quite right. The Brazilian air, the tropical climate, the open-air cooking – to me it all feels it’s important in preparing this delicious street food.

I’ve opted to make a more traditional pancake with tapioca flour although these recipes – Brazilian tapioca pancakes, shrimp tapioca pancakes –  look like great Brazilian options to try if you fancy some tapioca at home.

My tapioca pancake recipe is a based on this three-cheese pancake recipe on Great British Chefs with the cheesy filling mixed into the batter.

Makes 2 large pancakes

Cheesy tapioca pancake
Cheesy tapioca pancake
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Gluten-free cheesy tapioca flour pancakes recipe

Ingredients

Tapioca flour pancakes ingredients

  • 60 g tapioca starch
  • 2 large eggs
  • 60 g ricotta
  • 10 g Parmesan
  • 30 g cheddar
  • salt to taste
  • black pepper to taste

Instructions

How to make tapioca flour pancakes

  • Combine all ingredients and - using a blender - mix well for about 3 minutes to make the tapioca flour batter.
  • Place a knob of butter in a non-stick frying pan over medium heat.
  • Add half of the pancake batter to the pan and cook for 2 minutes, until light brown, turn to the other side and cook for another minute.
  • Serve immediately with a crisp side salad.

Tapioca flour biscuits recipe

I also wanted to feature a sweet tapioca flour recipe here, and luckily, I stumbled upon this delicious biscotti recipe on the Dolce Amaro blog. Crunchy, crumbly and amazingly flavoursome, these are superb tapioca flour biscuits – with white pepper and white chocolate added in as wildcard ingredients.

Tapioca flour biscuits
Tapioca flour biscuits

Please note this recipe isn’t gluten-free.

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Tapioca flour biscuits recipe

Simply beautiful biscuits with an exceptional bite and superb flavour.

Ingredients

Tapioca flour biscuits ingredients

Instructions

How to make tapioca flour biscuits

  • Start by whisking the egg yolks and oil in a medium bowl.
  • In a separate bowl, beat the egg whites and sugar until stiff.
  • Fold in the pepper and finely chopped chocolate.
  • Add the tapioca flour, yeast and yolk-oil.
  • Add kamut flour and salt.
  • Combine well, then place back in the bowl and rest in the fridge for 40 mins.
  • On a well-floured surface, with a well-floured rolling pin, and using more flour on the surface of the dough, roll to 1/2 cm high.
  • Cut out biscuits and carefully transfer them onto two baking trays lined with baking paper.
  • Bake at 200 °C for about 15 minutes.
Tapioca biscuits
Tapioca biscuits

Low glycemic index bread: barley flour bread recipe

 

Although barley is almost exclusively used in the brewing industry on account of its very low gluten content, barley flour is a really nice ingredient to introduce into bread baking. You’ll have even more reason for using barley if you are looking to keep the glycemic index (GI) of your home-baked bread as low as possible. I’ve been baking with barley flour ever since I came across the delicious barley rusks (used to prepare Dakos) hugely popular on the Greek island of Crete and after lots of research and experimentation I’d like to share my barley flour bread recipe with you.

Dakos
Dakos – If you’d like to make Greek barley rusks at home try this recipe which uses 44% barley flour… https://akispetretzikis.com/categories/snak-santoyits/kritharokoyloyres

Firstly though, I want to give you some background on barley flour and the glycemic index GI/ glycemic load GL values of different types of grains.

Barley flour bread is low GI bread

I’ve recently looked into low glycemic bread options as I’ve had to ensure my blood sugar levels were as stable as possible throughout the day for health reasons connected to my pregnancy. Out of all the grains, barley seems to come out on top. It contains a soluble fiber called beta-glucan which has been shown to slow glucose absorption and thought to help lower blood cholesterol.

The table below shows (reasonably) comprehensive information comparing the GI and GL of different grains, flours and one specific brand of bread. Data source: http://www.diogenes-eu.org/GI-Database/Default.htm

“The Glycemic Index (GI) is a relative ranking of carbohydrate in foods according to how they affect blood glucose levels. Carbohydrates with a low GI value are more slowly digested, absorbed and metabolised and cause a lower and slower rise in blood glucose and, therefore usually, insulin levels. Glycemic Load (or GL) combines both the quantity and quality of carbohydrates.  It is also the best way to compare blood glucose values of different types and amounts of foods. The formula for calculating the GL of a particular food or meal is: Glycemic Load = GI x Carbohydrate (g) content per portion ÷ 100.Source: https://www.gisymbol.com/

The Glycemic Index Foundation suggests that a GI of 45 or less is classified as low GI. For GL, 10 or less qualifies as low GL.

From the table below, we can see that only barley is low GI and none of the grains or flours listed qualify as low GL. Nonetheless, barley scores well.

Food name GI value GL
Pearl barley raw 25 21
Vogel’s sunflower and barley brown bread 40 16
Porridge Oats 58 20
Crispbread rye 64 45
Bran wheat 70 19
Wheatgerm 70 31
Rye bread 70 32
Wheat flour wholemeal 70 45
Wheat flour brown 70 48
Wheat flour white for breadmaking 70 53
Rye flour  whole 70 53
Wheat flour white plain 70 54

My barley bread recipe has taken inspiration from the above-mentioned Vogel’s sunflower and barley brown bread, incorporating both wheat and barley flours as well as sunflower seeds.

Barley flour bread recipe (sourdough barley bread)

Opt for barley bread if you are looking for a hearty addition to a low-GI diet. 

Barley flour bread recipe
Barley flour bread recipe

It is best to use barley flour in conjunction with high-gluten flour. My barley flour recipe uses 50% barley flour and 50% wholewheat flour to ensure the bread rises better. By adding at least 50% wheat flour benefits the crumb. In the interest of flavour and extensibility, I wouldn’t recommend to increase the % of barley flour. The higher the percentage of barley in relation to wheat, the less extensible the dough. I increased the dough hydration as well in order to account for the higher water absorption of the flours.

Barley flour bread low glycemic
Barley flour bread – low glycemic index bread
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Barley flour bread recipe

Barley flour adds a pronounced sweetness and a suggestion of maltiness to this loaf. This is even more pronounced due to the added barley flake soaker. Add in some pre-boiled barley kernels to make a coarser type of barley bread if you wish.
Servings 8

Ingredients

Ingredients

    Sourdough Ingredients

    • 100 g wheat sourdough starter 100% hydration
    • 50 g wholewheat flour
    • 50 g water lukewarm

    Barley Flake & Sunflower Seed Soaker Ingredients

    • 50 g barley flakes
    • 50 g sunflower seeds
    • 100 g hot water

    Main Dough Ingredients

    • 250 g wholewheat flour
    • 250 g barley flour
    • 10 g salt
    • 320 g water lukewarm
    • 100 g natural yoghurt

    Toppings

    • 1 handful of sunflower seeds
    • 1 handful of barley flakes

    Instructions

    How to make barley flour sourdough bread

      Day 1  - Refresh your sourdough starter & prepare the soaker

      • For the sourdough - 
        In a medium bowl, combine all the sourdough ingredients, cover with a lid and keep at room temperature until the next day.
      • For the soaker - 
        Toast the barley flakes and sunflower seeds in a frying pan (no oil) to release the nutty flavours, then take off the heat, add the boiling water and cover immediately. Set aside at room temperature.

      Day 2 (about 24 hours later) - Prepare the main dough, proof & bake

      • Combine 100g of the refreshed sourdough (the rest goes back into the fridge for future bakes) with all the remaining ingredients (the soaker you prepared the day before and all of the main dough ingredients) and knead for about 10 mins. The dough will be sticky yet pliable.
      • Leave the dough to rest for about an hour.
      • Oil a bread baking tin and distribute a handful of sunflower seeds across the bottom of the tin, covering the surface evenly.
      • Transfer the dough into the oiled and seeded bread baking tin, evenly distribute the barley flakes across the top of the dough and cover with a lid or a polythene bag to keep the moisture in.
      • Rest until fully proofed (this takes a good 4 hours in my cool kitchen) and preheat the oven to 220°C in time.
      • Bake at 220°C for 10 mins, and at 200°C for a further 40 mins.
      • Leave to cool on a wire rack.

      Grape seed flour bread recipe

       

      I stumbled upon grape seed flour in a small farm shop in Austria and was intrigued by this little known ingredient. Of course, I had to have it to use it in bread baking 🙂 Here are my notes on baking bread with grape seed flour.
      Grape seed flour can be made from any variety of grape, each with its own characteristic taste. When added to bread dough, the resulting loaf benefits from the grape flour’s richness of colour and flavour. I’ve noted down my grape seed flour bread recipe for those of you interested in giving this a go!

      Grape seed bread
      Grape seed bread

      Grape seed flour (which is actually more like a fine powder) is produced from pomace i.e. the skins, seeds and pulp generated during wine-making. Typically, only 80% of the total harvested grape crop is used to make wine, so it’s a nice way of using the ‘waste’ of the wine-making process. The seeds are pressed to extract the oils, and then, along with the grape skins, dried and milled into flour. Grape seeds have long been used to produce grape seed oil, and grape seed flour is just another alternative.

      Grape seed flour bread
      Grape seed flour bread

      How to use grape seed flour

      • Grape seed flour can be added to baked goods. The recommended ‘dosage’ is 5-7% based on the bread’s flour content.
      • Grape seed flour pancakes are another great option. Just use your standard pancake recipe and add a tablespoon of grape seed flour into the batter mixture.
      • It can also be added to yoghurt or smoothies and used to thicken and flavour soups or salad dressings.
      • It adds rich colour and flavour with a slightly astringent yet fruity taste. White wine grapes will lend a tan colour to baked goods, while red wine grapes will add a darker, purple-brown colour to them.
      • Grape seed flour provides a boost of antioxidants and is high in fibre.
      • Finally, it’s a gluten free ingredient.

      Grape Seed Flour Bread Recipe

      Have fun baking with grape seed bread and pairing it with wine. I used grape seed flour from the Urkornhof in Austria, but you can buy grape seed flour online too. The cold-pressed grape seed flour I used combines seeds from both white and red grape varieties into one flour.

      Ingredients

      Sourdough

      Main dough

      • 265g strong white bread flour
      • 35g wholemeal wheat flour
      • 15g grape seed flour
      • 8g salt
      • 180g water

      How to make grape seed flour bread

      1. On the day before baking, refresh your sourdough by combining the sourdough ingredients in a medium bowl. Mix well, cover and keep at room temperature for 12 – 16 hours.
      2. On the day of baking, combine 200g of the refreshed sourdough starter (the rest goes back into the fridge until your next bake) with the main dough ingredients.
      3. Knead for 10 minutes and you should have a smooth dough at this point.
      4. Place the dough back into the bowl, cover and rest for 1 hour or so until visibly risen.
      5. Punch down the dough and, on your work surface, shape it into a boule.
      6. Lightly dust the loaf with flour on all sides, then place it into a suitable proving basket.
      7. Cover the proving basket with a polythene bag (to prevent the dough from drying out), then leave to prove at room temperature for several hours until fully proved.
      8. Preheat the oven and your baking dome (if using) 20 minutes before the bake.
      9. Turn out the dough onto the baking dome plate or a baking tray lined with baking paper. Score a pattern with a scoring knife if you like.
      10. Bake at 180°C for 35 minutes and a further 10 minutes without the baking dome lid (if using) to brown the crust.
      11. Cool on a wire rack.

      Sugar Free Baking Recipes

       

      Cutting down on sugar has become a big talking point of late. The health conscious look to decrease their sugar intake, whether it’s due to a dietary restriction or just a general health choice.

      Someone close to me was diagnosed to be at risk of diabetes after a recent health check-up, so cutting down on sugar has been at the front of my mind when preparing food for family and friends.

      Traditional Austrian Plum Bread
      Traditional Austrian Plum Bread

      Sugar is found naturally in fruit, vegetables and dairy foods. However, the health debate is really about ‘added sugars’ e.g. sugar added to drinks and used in baking and ‘hidden sugars’ found in sauces, cereals and fruit juices. Both are seen as an unnecessary source of calories and a major cause of obesity (the more sugar you eat or drink, the more the body stores it as fat). The general advice from Diabetes UK is that we should all be cutting our sugar intake by half to around 25g (6 tsp) a day.

      Here’s how much sugar you’ll find in 100g of the following foods:

      • Raisins = 59g
      • Snickers bar = 47g
      • Grapes = 16g
      • Mango = 14g
      • Banana = 12g
      • Blueberries = 10g
      • Apple = 10g
      • Plums = 10g
      • Beetroot = 7g
      • Milk  = 5g
      • Cranberries = 4g
      • Rye flour = 1.1g
      • Wheat flour = 0.3g
      • Butter = 0.1g

      What does it mean to go Sugar Free?

      Sugar-free baking can mean different things to different people:

      • The Superficial Sugar Cutter
        Baking without processed table sugar by using alternatives such as honey. It’s important to note that honey, agave nectar and maple syrup are marketed as healthier alternatives to sugar but they’re really just other forms of sugar. Unfortunately, the Great British Bake Off was misleading on this topic in this year’s free-from episode.
      • The Low GI (Glycemic Index) Seeker
        Baking without sugar by using substitutes to sugar which don’t increase blood sugar levels e.g. xylitol (made from the bark of birch trees, looks and tastes like sugar). Low GI foods are broken down and absorbed more slowly into the blood stream and thereby result in a slower and more steady rise in blood sugar and insulin levels than high GI foods.
      • The Low-Calorie Dieter
        Baking without sugar by using substitutes which are low in calories e.g. erythritol.
      • The No-Sugar Purist
        Baking without any added sugar or sugar substitutes

      Sugar & Sugar Alternatives

      • To start with, I recommend the BBC Good Food guide to sugar free baking using natural alternatives to sugar.
      • If you are interested in calories, you might find these guides to sugar alternatives from the BBC helpful. It also features a brief outline of the six forms of sugar.
      • And here’s how sugar substitutes stack up as outlined by the National Geographic and analysing four categories: natural sweeteners, artificial sweeteners, dietary supplements, and sugar alcohols. It also showcases how well these sugar alternatives may do in your baking.

      Sugar Free Baking Tips

      • Use wholemeal flour instead of refined white flour to ensure you get the nutritional benefit of fibre, vitamins and minerals which are found in the whole grain.
      • Try baking with coconut sugar, made by heating sap from the coconut palm to evaporate its water content and reducing it to usable granules. Coconut sugar has a low score on the glycemic index and you can easily substitute coconut sugar for traditional sugar.
      • Bake with xylitol, which is generally understood to be a healthier alternative to sugar and also helps prevent the growth of bacteria. Here is some analysis from BBC Good Food: Xylitol Explained.
      • Use fruit to sweeten your baking. Fruit contains sugar, but the whole fruit includes the fibre of the flesh as well which adds nutritional value. Try to bake fruit breads (see recipes below) instead of cakes or muffins. Cranberries are low in sugar and delicious in your baking.

      Sugar Free Baking Recipes

      In general, baking your own is the preferred option for those of us looking to cut down on sugar. You can easily control the ingredients which go into your bakes. This is especially true for breads which, if bought in the supermarket, often contain unnecessary added sugar.

      Here are some of my favourite low sugar baking recipes, using fruit:

      Normandy apple bread
      Normandy apple bread

      If you’re new to baking, get started here and pick up your bread baking essentials:

      Good luck!

      Recipe for German Spätzle Pasta

       

      Fancy some homemade pasta without the work and effort usually involved with homemade pasta? German Spätzle pasta – small, squiggly egg dumplings from the Southwest of Germany – are easy to prepare and can be ready in a matter of minutes.

      German Spätzle Pasta
      German Spätzle pasta – lovely irregular shapes, perfect for sauces

      German Spätzle Pasta Recipe

      The flour

      Austrian flour type 480 (“griffiges Mehl”, flour type 405 in Germany, Italian 00 flour and soft pastry flour in the UK and US) should be used to make Spätzle.

      The ingredients (to serve 6 people as side dish) –

      • 500g Austrian flour type 480 / Italian 00 flour or types as specified above
      • 375g water
      • 2 eggs
      • 6g salt

      Please note that I am using a Spätzle maker (in German Spätzle-Sieb) to help me with the Spätzle making. Alternatively, you can use a sieve, colander or steamer with large (5-6 mm) holes.

      German Spätzle pasta maker
      German Spätzle pasta maker
      1. Combine all ingredients in a large bowl and mix well. All flour should be folded into the dough well. The dough will be more like a batter (it should drip, but not be too thin), so not the same as typical pasta dough.
      2. Heat a large pot of water until it reaches simmering point.
      3. Place the Spätzle sieve on top of the pot, put a few ladles of dough onto the Spätzle board and scrape the batter through the holes directly into the simmering water.
      4. The ‘dough droppings’ will sink to the bottom but they’ll pop up to the water surface once cooked through. Stir to make sure the Spätzle separate. The cooking will take only 2 to 3 minutes.
      5. Using a slotted spoon, take out the Spätzle as soon as they float to the top.
      6. Place them into a colander, rinse with cold water and drain.
      7. Toss in a little melted butter to keep them from sticking and warm through before serving.
      8. You can keep Spätzle in the fridge for a couple of days; heat through before serving.

      Spätzle

      Serve as a side dish to sauce-based meat dishes. Warning: very filling!

      Danish seeded rye bread with malted flour

       

      This month’s theme for the #TwelveLoaves bakers is Malt. I have previously used malt extract for dark wholemeal breads to add flavour and as a source of sugar for the yeast. However, with malt taking centre stage this month, I wanted to do more and decided to home-malt rye grains to make my own malted flour.

      Malt is created when simple grains such as rye, barley or wheat are left to germinate and sprout. When this happens, active enzymes in the grain convert the starch into a simple sugar called maltose. If the grain is then dried and toasted, the maltose darkens in colour and takes on a complex, rich caramel flavour.

      In this post, I’ll show how I made malted flour at home and then used it to bake a delicious Danish rye bread loaf.

      Malted rye bread
      Malted, seeded rye bread

      How to make malted flour at home?

      1. Germinate a handful of grains such as rye, barley or wheat – I used a germinator to do this. The process takes about 2 – 4 days depending on the temperature in your room. Germinate until the shoot is about the length of the seed itself.
      2. Dry the sprouted grains by laying them out on kitchen paper and leaving them to dry at room temperature for 12 hours. Move the air-dried grains onto a baking tray covered with baking paper and roast at a low temperature (50 – 75°C) for 2 to 3 hours. Drying the grains halts the germination process but the temperature at which the grains are roasted is important.
      3. Lightly roasting the grains at a low temperature (as above) ensures that the the flour remains ‘diastatic’ i.e. the malted flour will still contain considerable enzyme activity to increase the extraction of sugars from the flours for use as food during the fermentation process, yielding a strong rise, great oven-spring and increased crust-browning.
      4. More heavily roasted grains result in a much darker flour but the enzyme activity is destroyed. Flour made from such grains are used for purely for colour and flavour.
      5. Grind the sprouted and dried grains into flour. Very finely ground malted flour can sometimes also be referred to as malt powder.
      Malted rye grains
      Malted rye grains

      And here we have it! Malted flour i.e. flour ground from sprouted, dried and roasted grains.

      Rye, malted rye grains, malted rye flour
      Rye berries; Malted rye grains; Malted rye flour

      In bread baking, malt ingredients are used in small quantities (around 1% diastatic malt flour as a % of overall flour used) while for sweet malt bakes (e.g. for malt loaves, malted cookies and malted chocolate tarts) generous quantities of malt extract and malt flour are used to achieve the distinctive flavour, colour and stickiness.

      Malted rye slice
      Danish malted, seeded rye slice

      How to bake Danish seeded rye bread with malted flour

      16 – 24 hours before preparing the final dough

      Sourdough

      Combine the starter, flours and water in a bowl, mix well, cover with a lid and leave to rest at room temperature for 16 – 24 hours.

      Toasted seed soaker

      • 100g sunflower seeds
      • 50g oats
      • 50g flaxseed
      • 200g cracked whole rye
      • 8g salt
      • 400g boiling water (the cracked rye doesn’t soften easily with cold water, so boiling water is recommended)

      Toast the sunflower seeds and oats in a non-stick frying pan. Turn them often and watch the seeds and oats closely to avoid burning. Combine the toasted seeds and oats, the flaxseed and cracked whole rye in a  bowl, add the salt and the boiling water. Mix well, cover with a lid and leave to rest for 16 – 24 hours.

      1 hour before preparing the final dough

      Boiled rye berries

      • 65g whole rye berries

      Place the rye berries in a small pot and cover with cold water. Bring to boil and continue for about 45 minutes. Top up with more water if needed. Using a sieve, discard any remaining water. Leave to cool.

      Preparing the final dough

      • 500g rye flour
      • 200g strong white wheat flour
      • 2 tbsp malted flour
      • 435g water
      • 22g salt
      1. Combine 400g of the sourdough, the toasted seed and oat mix, the boiled rye berries and the final dough ingredients in a large bowl.
      2. Mix with your hands – you won’t be able to knead the dough as it’s too sticky.
      3. Cover the bowl and leave the mixture to rest for 30 minutes at room temperature.
      4. Butter a large loaf tin (I used a tin 33 x 10 x 10 cm).
      5. Give the dough mixture another good mix with your hands.
      6. Move the dough into the loaf tin and spread evenly. Cover the loaf tin and place the dough in the fridge overnight (approx. 12 hours).
      7. Remove the tin from the fridge for approx. 1 hour before baking to bring the dough back to room temperature.
      8. Bake for 15 mins at 250°C and for a further 50 mins at 200°C.

      Danish malted rye bread

      Perfectly delicious with just butter, with all types of strong cheeses, all salty food as well as pickled or smoked fish.

      #TwelveLoaves is a monthly bread baking party created by Lora from Cake Duchess and runs smoothly with the help of Heather of girlichef, and the rest of our fabulous bakers.

      Our host this month is Heather from girlichef, and our theme is Malt. For more bread recipes, visit the #TwelveLoaves Pinterest board, or check out last month’s selection of #TwelveLoaves Jewish Breads!

      If you’d like to bake along with us this month, share your Malt Bread using hashtag #TwelveLoaves!

      Bread Spices (Brotgewürz) – The taste of real Austrian rye breads

       

      My bread baking journey with The Bread She Bakes is firmly rooted in the delicious flavours of Austrian rye breads I missed so much when I moved to the UK. A lot of dark breads in Austria, Germany (particularly in the South), Switzerland and South Tyrol are made with Brotgewürz (bread spices) which are both great for the taste of the bread and also really good for your digestive system.

      Bread spices (Brotgewuerz)
      Bread spices (Brotgewürz)

      Recipe for an Austrian bread spice blend

      The basic seeds and spices used are caraway seeds, anise, fennel and coriander seeds.

      Bread spice ingredients for a 1 kg loaf of bread

      • 2½ tsp of caraway seeds
      • 2 tsp of fennel
      • 1 tsp of anise
      • ½ tsp of coriander seeds

      You can also experiment with small quantities of allspice, fenugreek, sweet trefoil, celery seeds and cardamom – or just use one of these ingredients for your bread e.g. just caraway seeds or just coriander seeds. The taste of your bread will be very different depending on your bread spice choice.

      Caraway seeds
      Caraway seeds
      Coriander seeds
      Coriander seeds
      Fennel seeds
      Fennel seeds
      Anise seeds
      Anise seeds

      How to make a bread spice mix (Brotgewürzmischung)

      Put everything together into a coffee & spice grinder or just use a pestle and mortar to crack and crush the seeds.

      The finer you crush or grind the spices, the subtler the taste.  You can use all of the spices whole if you like.

      Bread spice whole
      Bread spice whole

      How to use bread spices

      Simply add the spice mix to the dough ingredients. I usually use bread spice in dark breads made with 50 – 70% rye flour, 2 tablespoons of bread spice per kg of flour.

      If you make larger quantities, keep the bread spices in an airtight container but it’s way better to make a fresh portion every time you need it!

      Why not bake this delicious Austrian Hausbrot with your freshly assembled Brotgewürz 🙂 Enjoy!

      Wholemeal, Wholewheat, Wholegrain Flour… Confused?

       

      Depending on the recipe you use, where you live and where you shop, flour can be named differently.

      In general, wholemeal, wholewheat and wholegrain flour all refer to unrefined flours i.e. flours which are made of the whole grain (including bran, germ and endosperm). Note that wholewheat refers to flour made from wheat, while the terms wholemeal and wholegrain can also refer to other varieties of grain e.g. rye, spelt or buckwheat. Wholewheat could therefore also be described as wholemeal made from 100% wheat.

      Refined (white) flours on the other hand only contain the endosperm of the grain (the bran and germ are removed) helping these flours to keep longer. However, by removing bran and germ, the flour also loses valuable nutritional components such as fiber, phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals. Brown flour uses a proportion of the whole grain, but usually not 100%.

      There are regulations in place (“The Bread and Flour Regulations 1998” in the UK for example) which specify that four vitamins and minerals must be added to all white and brown flour (not wholemeal) to ensure the population still has an adequate intake of these vitamins and minerals even if they chose not to eat wholemeal. The process is called flour enrichment. The added nutrients are calcium, iron, thiamine and niacin which occur naturally in wholemeal but are lost in white, and to a certain extent brown flour. One key difference remains: refined flours are missing the dietary fibre of wholemeal.

      The term wholemeal is more commonly used in the UK, while wholewheat and wholegrain are terms more frequently used in the US.

      There are exceptions to this rule of course. I frequently buy Gilchesters Organics wholewheat flour (produced in Northumberland in the UK).

      Gilchesters Organics Stoneground Organic 100% Whole Wheat Flour
      100% Whole Wheat – Gilchesters Organics Flour

      To make things more complicated (in the US in particular), you might come across white wholewheat flour. White wholewheat is made using whole white wheat grains while regular wholewheat is made from red wheat grains. White wheat is a type of wheat which has no major genes for bran color. White wholewheat is a lighter flour with a finer texture and milder flavour compared to regular wholewheat. Nutritionally, the two types of wheat are very similar.

      Note that due to the different climate/agronomy, the wheat varieties grown in the UK differ to the wheat types in the US.